In 1980, Rudolf Groner, Dieter Heller and Henk Breimer initiated a interdisciplinary network called "European Group of Scientists active in Eye Movement Research". This group included scientists who used eye movement registration as a research tool and developed models based on oculomotor data obtained from a wide spectrum of phenomena, ranging from the neurophysiological to the perceptual and the cognitive level. The group's focus was on exchanging information on current research, equipment and software. Starting 1981, it organized a biennial conference (ECEM) at different locations all over Europe. The group published edited books and starting 2008, published the Journal of Eye Movement Research (JEMR), an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed scientific online journal.